Everything You Need to Know About Abiraterone Acetate

0
982
Abiraterone Acetate

What is Abiraterone Acetate?

Abiraterone acetate, also sold by the name Zytiga, is a hormonal therapy used to treat prostate cancer in men. It is commonly used in combination with prednisone to treat prostate cancer in men that has spread to other parts of the body. 

Abiraterone acetate falls under the category of androgen biosynthesis inhibitors and is generally prescribed to male patients whose body has stopped responding to other types of hormonal therapy. This medication is sometimes referred to as a second-line therapy, although some may use it as first-line therapy in case of advanced prostate cancer. 

Here is the chemical structure of Abiraterone acetate API:

The other common details of Abiraterone acetate API are as follows:

Chemical Formula: C24H31NO

Weight: 349.509

CAS Number: 154229-19-3

InChI Key: GZOSMCIZMLWJML-VJLLXTKPSA-N

IUPAC Name: (3aS,3bR,7S,9aR,9bS,11aS)-9a,11a-dimethyl-1-(pyridin-3-yl)-3H,3aH,3bH,4H,6H,7H,8H,9H,9aH,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-7-ol

SMILES: [H][C@@]12CC=C(C3=CC=CN=C3)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CC=C2C[C@@H](O)CC[C@]12C

Organizations and Clinical Trials of Abiraterone Acetate

Abiraterone Acetate API was clinically tested in four phases. A total of 192 organizations participated in the trials for this API. the trials were conducted in four stages, and 242 trials were shown for Abiraterone Acetate API. 

177 of those organizations participated in the research and development of Abiraterone Acetate API. to name a few, we have:

  • Johnson and Johnson
  • Astellas
  • GlaxoSmithKline
  • Dendreon

The remaining 15 organizations participated in the marketing of this excellent API:

  • Teva
  • Apotex
  • Glenmark Pharmaceuticals

Indications of Abiraterone Acetate API

There are two approved indications of Abiraterone Acetate API:

  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant

There are 53 experimental indications of Abiraterone Acetate API as observed during the four trials:

  • Abiraterone Acetate (Early Phase 1)
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital (Phase 2)
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Phase 2)
  • Anemia (Phase 1)
  • Astrocytoma (Phase 1)
  • Brain Neoplasms (Phase 1)
  • Breast Neoplasms (Phase 3)
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung (Phase 1)
  • Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial (Phase 1)
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell (Phase 2)
  • Castration (Phase 3)
  • Colorectal Neoplasms (Phase 1)
  • Congenital Hyperinsulinism (Phase 2)
  • COVID-19 (Phase 3)
  • Cushing Syndrome (Phase 2)
  • DNA Repair-Deficiency Disorders (Phase 2)
  • Drugs, Investigational (Phase 2)
  • Drug Therapy, Combination (Phase 2)
  • Glioblastoma (Phase 1)
  • Healthy Volunteers (Phase 1)
  • Hodgkin Disease (Phase 1)
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell (Phase 1)
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive (Phase 1)
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute (Phase 1)
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative (Phase 1)
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase (Phase 1)
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic (Phase 1)
  • Liver Diseases (Phase 1)
  • Lymphoma (Phase 1)
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin (Phase 1)
  • Lymphoma, Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell (Phase 1)
  • Metabolic Diseases (Phase 1)
  • Multiple Myeloma (Phase 1)
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (Phase 1)
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders (Phase 1)
  • Neoplasm Metastasis (Phase 3)
  • Neoplasms ()
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms (Phase 1)
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations (Phase 2)
  • Pharmacokinetics (Phase 1)
  • Pharmacology (Phase 1)
  • Plasma (Phase 1)
  • Polymorphism, Genetic (Early Phase 1)
  • Postmenopause (Phase 2)
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma (Phase 1)
  • Primary Myelofibrosis (Phase 1)
  • Prostatectomy (Phase 2)
  • Prostatic Neoplasms ()
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant (Phase 4)
  • Renal Insufficiency (Phase 1)
  • Salivary Gland Neoplasms (Phase 2)
  • Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms (Phase 1)
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms (Phase 2)

How Does Abiraterone Acetate Works?

Abiraterone acetate or Zytiga is normally consumed as an oral pill. The tablet is usually taken once or twice daily per the doctor’s prescription. The patient needs to take Abiraterone acetate empty stomach before eating anything. The tablet can also be consumed two hours after eating anything. 

But how does Zytiga or Abiraterone acetate work? Well, prostate cancer cells only grow in men with the growth in testosterone cells. Hence, Abiraterone acetate limits the growth of testosterone in men. As a result, your prostate cancer remains under control and limits the symptoms like tiredness and pain. 

Pharmacology of Abiraterone Acetate

Mechanism of Action: Cytochrome P450 17A1 Inhibitor

Black Box: No  

Pro Drug: No

ALogP: 5.4

What is the Main Use of Abiraterone Acetate?

The major use of Abiraterone acetate API is to treat prostate cancer in men that has spread to other parts of the body. When combined with prednisone, Abiraterone limits testosterone cells’ growth, thereby limiting prostate cancer cells’ growth.

There are majorly two uses of Abiraterone acetate:

  • Abiraterone acetate or Zytiga is used for patients whose cancer is castrate-resistant. That means they have not responded to other hormonal treatments or therapies. 
  • Another brand name, Yona, uses the same chemical formula in patients with castrate-resistant cancer. 
  • Lastly, Abiraterone acetate is used in high-risk patients with castrate-sensitive cancer. That means the body has responded to hormonal therapy to lower testosterone levels. 

Zytiga or Abiraterone acetate is also used with other types of hormonal therapy, such as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), to lower the testosterone level in men further. Sometimes doctors also remove the testicles as an alternative to hormonal therapy. 

What are the Common Side Effects of Abiraterone Acetate?

Apart from the benefits of Abiraterone acetate API, some common side effects may be seen in the patients consuming the medicine. To name a few, we have:

  • Fluid retention may cause swelling in your feet and legs.
  • A drop in your potassium levels may cause weakness or cramps in your muscles.
  • Fast or pounding heartbeat
  • Liver problems
  • High blood pressure

Who Should Not Take Abiraterone Acetate?

Abiraterone acetate has shown tremendous effects in limiting prostate cancer in men. However, some people with serious medical conditions should not take this medicine. 

  • Women should not be prescribed Abiraterone actress in any form. Pregnant women may cause serious issues to their fetuses when they touch Abiraterone acetate with bare hands. 
  • Men with heart issues and low potassium levels should not consume this medicine as it further decreases their potassium levels. 
  • If you have undergone a hormonal therapy called enzalutamide, then Abiraterone acetate won’t be useful. 
  • People with acute liver infections are also suggested not to take Abiraterone acetate. 

How to Store and Dispose of Abiraterone Acetate?

Abiraterone acetate API should be stored in an air-tight container at room temperature without excess heat and moisture. The medicine should also be kept away from the reach of children. The medicine should also be disposed of carefully to ensure that stray animals and other people cannot consume them. 

Abiraterone acetate is a highly reactive medicine and should always be disposed of in special ways, using a medicine take-back program. Remember not to flush your medication as it may cause serious water contamination issues. 

Conclusion

Abiraterone acetate is an excellent drug that limits prostate cancer in men where the cancer cells have spread to other body parts. The medicine limits the growth of testosterone cells, which further reduces the growth of prostate cancer cells. 

Abiraterone acetate should only be consumed by men once or twice a day. You should not consume anything 2 hours before taking medicine and one hour after taking Abiraterone acetate. Headache, joint pain, and tiredness are some common symptoms of Abiraterone acetate. However, consult your doctor if you have heart issues, liver infections, or skin rashes after taking Abiraterone acetate.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here