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TPP consists of a pyrimidine ring which is connected to a thiazole ring, which is in turn connected to a pyrophosphate (diphosphate) functional group. The part of TPP molecule that is most commonly involved in reactions is the thiazole ring, which contains nitrogen and sulfur.
Thiazole, a unique heterocycle containing sulphur and nitrogen atoms, occupies an important place in medicinal chemistry. It is an essential core scaffold present in many natural (Vitamin B1- Thiamine) and synthetic medicinally important compounds. The versatility of the thiazole nucleus is demonstrated by the fact that it is an essential part of penicillin nucleus and some of its derivatives which have shown antimicrobial (sulfazole), antiretroviral (ritonavir), antifungal (abafungin), antihistaminic and antithyroid activities.