Introduction

Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic prostate cancer, commonly spreads to lymph nodes and other body parts or bones. Advanced prostate cancer spreads from the prostate to other parts of the body. 

Symptoms of Advanced Prostate Cancer and Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread

The symptoms of advanced prostate cancer depend upon this factor where cancer has spread. You can contact your doctors when you see the possible symptoms in your body.

Advanced prostate cancer means beginning will be prostate gland, then spreads to another part of the body. If your cancer has spread, you might experience;

  • Bone pain
  • Feel very tired
  • Feel generally unwell
  • Have weight loss for no known reason
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Decreased force in the stream of urine
  • Trouble urinating
  • Blood in the semen
  • Blood in the urine

What Are the Best Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer?

The stages of your cancer can help the doctor decide which treatment is suitable for you. Treatment options for prostate cancer depend on various risk factors such as; 

Obesity

People with obesity have a higher risk of getting prostate cancer than people with a healthy weight. In this condition, cancer is more aggressive and more likely to return after initial treatment.

Read Also: Obesity Leads to Mortality: Know All Important Facts

Family History

If any of your blood relatives have a history of prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of prostate cancer, you have a high chance of getting prostate cancer.

Race

Black people have a greater chance of getting prostate cancer than other people. As no such reasons are determined yet, prostate cancer is more likely to be advanced or aggressive in black people.

Read Also: Treat Cancer with Osimertinib

Older Age

Prostate cancer is prevalent after age 50. As per studies, the risk of prostate cancer increases with age. 

Your treatment might include therapies like;

Surgery to remove the prostate

Surgery for prostate cancer involves the removal of the radical prostatectomy, a few lymph nodes, and some surrounding tissues. This treatment is used for advanced prostate cancer and other treatments.

Radiation therapy

This therapy is used for killing cancer cells. this treatment involves;

  1. Radiation placed inside your body is called Brachytherapy
  2. Radiation that comes from outside of your body.

Heating or freezing prostate tissue

This therapy destroys prostate tissue with heat or cold, and the options include;

  1. Heating prostate tissue
  2. Freezing prostate tissue

Hormone therapy

  1. Orchiectomy
  2. Medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells
  3. Medications to stop your body from producing testosterone

For medication, a person can consume Abiraterone acetate after consulting a doctor.

Symptom Control Such as Treatment to Help With Bone Pain

Bones are the most common for prostate cancer; they can also spread to the liver, lymph nodes, lungs, and other organs. Large tumors can also extend into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the urethra or the back passage.

You may experience specific symptoms depending on the spreading of cancer. It can also be caused by other medical conditions, which might not indicate that cancer has spread. Symptoms of cancer that has spread to the;

Bone

Bone is the most common place for bone cancer, including the spine, pelvis, ribs, and skull. The most common symptom of cancer that has spread to the bone is bone pain. It can be a dull ache or stabbing pain.

When cancer that has spread to the spine puts pressure on the spinal cord, it can cause spinal cord compression. Which later on can cause dysfunction of the spinal cord. 

Liver

If cancer has spread to the liver, you might experience poor appetite, weight loss, a swollen tummy, yellowing of the skin, feeling sick, discomfort, or pain on the right side of your tummy. 

To or near the bladder

Large tumors can spread to the other parts of the body, which can press on the urethra. It is a tube that carries urine from the bladder. Having difficulty passing urine, getting up at night to pass urine, or having blood in your urine or semen can be one of the symptoms of prostate cancer. 

Bowel

The rectum part of the bowel is close to the prostate. Spreading of cancer to the bowel is very rare. You might experience abdominal pain, blood discharge during defecation or a back massage, or constipation. 

Test for prostate cancer

Usually, there are number of tests that are available for the diagnosis of prostate cancer which include;

A PSA blood test

This test is done to check the prostate-specific antigen in your blood. It is a protein made by both cancerous and normal protein cells. The presence of some PSA in their blood is very normal, but a higher level of PSA than expected for someone your age can be a sign of prostate. 

Digital Rectal examination

It is called a digital rectal examination if your doctor checks the prostate gland for abnormal signs such as problem areas or lumps. 

To examine your prostate, the doctor puts a gloved finger into your back passage or rectum.

  • Sample of the prostate gland, which is called a biopsy.
  • Scans

If you go for the treatment to any specialist, usually they do more tests, which include;

Biopsy

It is a test to diagnose advanced prostate cancer, where the doctor takes tissue samples from your prostate. There are two main ways to have a prostate biopsy;

Transperineal biopsy

  • Transrectal ultrasound scan-guided biopsy
  • Bone scan
  • CT scan
  • An MRI Scan

MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging, which uses magnetism and radio waves to take pictures of the inside of your body. It can help your doctor in any way, such as;

  • Decide whether you need a biopsy or not
  • Check the abnormality
  • The guide was to take the biopsy from
  • Look at the local lymph nodes and bones around your pelvis to make sure that they are normal
  • Look at whether suspected prostate cancer has started to grow outside the prostate

If a biopsy finds cancer, the pathologist will give it a grade. This is the most common grading system, called the Gleason grading system. The Gleason score will help your doctor. 

What Are the Side Effects of Treatment for Prostate Cancer?

The prostate is very close to several vital structures of your body. Its treatment can disrupt normal urinary, sexual functioning, and bowel. Early management of these side effects has been shown to help patients live longer and better lives. So here are the side effects of treatments for prostate cancer;

  • In prostatectomy, which is the surgical removal of the prostate, the bladder is pulled down so it can connect to the urethra. If in any way, the base of the bladder is damaged during this process, leakage may occur, or it may cause urinary incontinence. 
  • Radiation therapy targets the prostate, but there are high chances that the bladder and urethra will receive some radiation, which can increase the urinary frequency and urgency. 

Conclusion

Prostate cancer is detrimental, so it is better to go for a check or consult an expert. 

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