Viral Hepatitis: Everything You Need to Know

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Viral Hepatitis

What is Viral Hepatitis?

Several viruses are known to cause Hepatitis, which refers to liver inflammation. You can lower the risk of getting Hepatitis by avoiding risky behaviors like unprotected sex, frequently drinking alcohol, and sharing needles.

Hepatitis refers to the inflammation of the liver. It is a tissue reaction to irritation or any injury that generally results in swelling and can also cause pain. 

There are many reasons for Hepatitis. The virus causes viral Hepatitis, which can be either chronic or acute. Viral Hepatitis may spread through sexual contact as well. 

There are five known Hepatitis that are categorized. Several viruses are now known to cause Hepatitis. The common form of viral Hepatitis include; 

Hepatitis A

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were about 2007 acute hepatitis A infections in the U.S. This form of Hepatitis has no complications and does not lead to any chronic infection. The liver generally heals from Hepatitis A within several months. However, you may observe occasional fatality from hepatitis A, which has occurred due to liver failure, and some people have required a liver transplant for the acute 

Hepatitis B

In 2017, around 22,000 new hepatitis B occurred, and around 90,0000 people are living with this disease in the U.S. The earlier hepatitis B is contracted, the more likely to become chronic. People may carry the virus without feeling sick, but still, the virus can spread. Hepatitis B can be prevented by getting vaccinated. 

Hepatitis C

About 85% of patients with hepatitis C develop chronic liver infections. About 2.4 million people in the U.S. are estimated to have this infection. This is one of the most common reasons behind liver disease in the U.S. and the number one reason behind liver transplants. 

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D only happens to those infected by the hepatitis B virus. If you have been vaccinated against hepatitis B, you will be protected against hepatitis D. 

Hepatitis E

Healthcare providers may be unable to identify virus-causing Hepatitis as one of these. Other viruses like EBV, CMV, and HSV can also cause Hepatitis. 

Most people recover from Hepatitis, and the disease is often preventable as well. However, this is still considered a serious health risk because that can:

  • Destroy the tissue of the liver
  • Spread easily from one person to another
  • Weaken the immune system of the body
  • Cause liver failure
  • Cause liver cancer
  • Cause death. 

How Does Hepatitis Spread?

  • There can be many factors through which you can become infected with Hepatitis. It can happen through exposure to blood and body fluids like the semen of an infected person. 
  • Hepatitis can also spread by having unprotected sex, sharing or use of dirty needles for piercing, tattoos, and drug use. 
  • Being born to a pregnant woman with the infection, being bitten by someone with the infection, being treated medically who does not use sterile instruments, and sharing everyday items that include razors, toothbrushes, and piercing jewelry can all be the reason behind the Hepatitis infection. 
  • You may only get hepatitis D, in case you have hepatitis B.
  • In many cases, hepatitis E can be dangerous and even fatal in pregnant people. 

Apart from all these, there are a lot of myths regarding the spreading of Hepatitis. It does not spread by breastfeeding, coughing and sneezing, eating food that someone with the infection has prepared, kissing on the cheek or lips, hugging, shaking hands, or holding hands.

Symptoms of Viral Hepatitis

Symptoms of Hepatitis B can be intense or minor. There are cases where people are affected, but they never feel sick. Symptoms of Viral Hepatitis B may include:

  • Loose stool.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Constipation.
  • Having yellow skin.
  • Mild fever or eyes.
  • Being sick to your stomach.

More than 90% of the people who get hepatitis B in their adult stage recover from their symptoms. 

  • Healthcare providers and first responders, people on dialysis, people living in close quarters with a person with chronic hepatitis B, and children’s mothers who have been infected with hepatitis B.
  • People who have unprotected sex or have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease are likely to get infected by this virus.
  • People living with or working in an institutional setting such as group homes or prisons carry a high risk of getting hepatitis B.

Diagnosis

There are various ways to diagnose HBV infection, including abdominal ultrasound, liver biopsy, and blood tests. An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and blood circulation through it. A small tissue sample is removed through a tiny incision in a liver biopsy and sent to the lab for analysis. Tests of blood plasma or serum show the response of your immunity to the virus. Tenofovir Alafenamide by leading API manufacturers fumarate is used to treat chronic Hepatitis B infection. 

Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

  • There is no such infallible treatment to cure hepatitis A, apart from carefully monitoring the liver function. If you know you have Hepatitis A earlier, you may e able to stop the infection if you get the dose of the Hepatitis A vaccine called Hepatitis A immune globulin. 
  • Hepatitis B can be treated successfully, and generally used drugs by active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturers for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B are:
  1. Entecavir
  2. Tenofovir alafenamide
  3. Interferon alfa-2b
  4. Peginterferon alfa-2a
  • For Hepatitis C, the following drugs can be used:
  1. Daclatasvir dihydrochloride
  2. Simeprevir
  3. Sofosbuvir
  4. Elbasvir
  5. Piberntasvir

All these drugs are sometimes given with older drugs like peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon-2b, and ribavirin. You may have to take all these medicines for some time, even as long as six months.

If you have chronic hepatitis D, the doctor may prescribe drugs or active pharma ingredients with the interferons and add medicines for hepatitis B. 

Conclusion

The severity of Hepatitis can cause serious illness and lead to the person’s death. So you need to go for a check-up and take medicines accordingly. Active pharma ingredients manufacturers take care of that.

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