5 Major Health Risks from Obesity


What is Obesity?

With an abundance of unhealthy lifestyles and eating habits, the Indian population falls prey to obesity. Obesity affects approximately 5% of the population, and this number is rising every day and every year. India leads at number 2 when it comes to the number of obese people in the country.

Many think obesity is just being fat and unhealthy, but no one talks about the damage it can cause to the body and the health risks it comes with.

We can’t blame our parents for forcing us to eat at home instead of eating outside, as junk food can double the chances of obesity in a person.

Assessing Obesity

A person is called overweight when their body mass index (BMI) exceeds or is equal to 25. They are called obese if their BMI exceeds 30. Calculating BMI is done by considering two factors, i.e., height and weight. Obesity comes with plenty of health risks and chronic diseases. Obesity also makes daily tasks like climbing stairs or something as simple as walking difficult. It is alright to indulge in pleasure food once in a while but not advisable or healthy to make it a lifestyle habit. 

With covid risks, it has become even more important for everyone to be fit and healthy. For an obese person being positive for covid can be much more dangerous than for a fit person.

What Causes Obesity?

Obesity is a serious condition caused when a person has excess fat and weight in their body. Although, obesity may not only be caused by unhealthy eating habits and lifestyles. They can be caused by a few other factors as well:

  • Family History

It is proven that genes and family history of obesity can carry on from generation to generation. Due to similar eating habits and diet, a person can have similar issues as their other family members.

  • Medication

Some medications produce so much heat and hormonal change in the person’s body, which can cause them to become obese due to the side effects of certain medicines. Some medications can cause hormonal imbalances that can affect your weight in a short period.

  • Unhealthy Habits and Lifestyle Choices

Following an unhealthy lifestyle is the major cause of obesity among people.

No one can surely say the cause of obesity as many factors contribute to it.

Health Issues with Obesity

Being overweight or obese poses harmful threats to a person. Compared to a healthy person, an obese person is more likely to have health issues and diseases. Although the disease can affect anyone, an obese or overweight person is more exposed to the possibility of getting a disease.

Health issues with obesity can show up in the form of different diseases and risks:

  • High Blood Pressure
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Heart Disease 
  • Higher chance of Stroke
  • Gallbladder Disease
  • Insomnia
  • Respiratory Problems
  • Mental Issues
  • Disrupted Body Function
  • Kidney Disease
  • Affected fertility issues

Something as simple as daily tasks can be difficult when a person is obese. The hormonal disturbance that comes with weight gain impacts the body. Overall it is an unhealthy way of living and not ideal, especially in covid times.

Treatment of Obesity

There is no specific way to treat obesity, and it requires just a bunch of lifestyle changes that one can initiate in their daily life to fight obesity. 

Treating obesity involves patience and taking baby steps toward your goals.

  • Following a healthy diet
  • Calorie controlled diet
  • Taking at least 8 hours of sleep
  • Refraining from high sugar content products
  • Exercise
  • Weight loss medication
  • Hormonal Treatments

It’s all about making long-term lifestyle changes to live a healthy life. Do seek medical attention if you notice sudden weight gain or weight loss. It’s also wise to seek a doctor’s consultation and check for hormonal or any health issues that may need medical attention or treatment. Also, avoid being a couch potato and do some physical activity. If not, exercise every day to keep those calories burning.

To give your journey a boost, you can try cetilistat by Bulat Pharmaceuticals, which is a specially designed active medication for treating obesity. With its consumption, you will be able to notice significant changes in your body as it breaks down fat, producing noticeable results.


Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is of top-notch importance, especially considering the scenario Covid has gotten us into. People during lockdown either have gained weight by being at home and indulging in pleasure food to enjoy or decided to become healthy and lost weight as they had plenty of time on their hands.

With so much talk about body positivity and empathy towards overweight or obese people, we must understand that things can get difficult for some, and it can be extremely tough for them to lose weight. However, the main goal is to stay healthy and fit, which will help you lead a long, healthy, disease-free life.

If you found this helpful and informative, check Bulat Pharmaceutical for more such content. Need assistance on any of our products? Feel free to reach out to our experts.

Complete Buying Guide: Pharmaceutical Raw Materials


What are Pharmaceutical Raw Materials?

Pharmaceutical Raw Materials are substances, chemicals, and compositions used to curate and manufacture pharmaceutical products.

These raw materials are generally classified into three categories, ie. 

  • Active pharmaceutical ingredients aka API raw material

API is the main ingredient in pharmaceutical drugs and is majorly responsible for drug action. Certain standards have to be followed to decide the percentage of an API in a pharmaceutical product. These require specific maintenance and packaging as they are active ingredients in them. Active pharma ingredients need specific packaging to keep them intact.

  • Intermediaries

This raw material is used to cause a reaction in API manufacturing to form the chemical and molecular specifications required to manufacture the pharmaceutical product.

  • Additives

Additives are the substance added to the formulation to add to the specific requirement for that pharmaceutical product. These can be used in bulk to add specific qualities to a drug formulation.

Chemical suppliers and biologics manufacturers majorly supply these raw materials to pharmaceutical companies. 

Checklist to Test Quality of Pharmaceutical raw material

The quality of pharmaceutical raw materials is of utmost importance to curate a product that does the job right. Any kind of defect in the quality can be harmful to the product user.

Consistent quality is required to manufacture a product to maintain the standard attributes of the products. Quality is also important because it is a risky area; if you get your manufacturing wrong, it can cause a huge loss to the business.

The checklist to test the quality of pharmaceutical raw materials includes:

  • Set Specifications for raw material

The first step is to set acceptable specifications for the raw material to have something to test against. Make the specifications clear to the supplier to maintain the quality accordingly. For example, suppose the quality test is for Vitamin B12. In that case, it has to be tested as per pharmacopeias and any other test (if required) for the quality control of raw materials.

  • Trusted Suppliers

Goes without saying that it is a wise call to only buy the raw material from trusted suppliers who ensure quality material and won’t compromise with the quality in any manner. Trust is also built over time, but it is inevitable to get tricked at times if you are new in the market. So one needs to be precisely careful while selecting a supplier to meet your quality needs. Please do not refrain from thorough research and background check to ensure you deal with a trusted supplier who delivers what they promise.

  • Inspection

Indulge in regular inspections to avoid any degraded quality of raw material. Inspect the supplier’s manufacturing system and the delivered raw material for a successful inspection. Provide a specified list of the standards required and expected from them so that there is no confusion while delivering the raw material.

  • Packaging of API Raw Material

Especially while dealing with active pharma ingredients, check the packaging. Some APIs need special packaging to keep them secure and in the right state. For example, some elements need specific temperature maintenance to keep them intact and usable form.

  • Conducting Lab Test

A lab test can be conducted to check the quality of the raw material. Especially in the case of manufacturing medicine and related products, it is important to keep the specified quality maintained to deliver quality products that match company standards. Lab testing of the raw material is part of the procedure as no mistakes are to be made while manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Precision is the major key when it comes to pharmaceutical products.

Where to buy the best Pharmaceutical Raw Materials?

As per stats, 70% of the bulk drugs and raw materials worth 2.4 billion are imported from China. There are multiple suppliers in India as well as the market for Pharmaceutical Raw materials is huge, which can make determining the right option a little difficult. There is an abundance of suppliers in India, but certain raw materials are not available in India; hence, they are imported from different countries. 

Follow these steps to determine where to buy the best pharmaceutical raw materials.

  • Decide what you want.

Make a list of the raw materials you will need for your pharmaceuticals business. First, it is important to know your requirements and specifications of the number of raw materials, quality, quantity, pricing, etc. the raw material you require depends on the scale of your manufacturing unit, demand in the market, supply available on call, availability of supplier and raw material, etc. The first step is to set a course of action to avoid hindrances while working, as time and money are crucial to the business.

  • Market Research

After you have a list of your requirements, perform market research on the available suppliers in the market. Make a list of the suppliers that fit your budget and tick all your requirement boxes. Also, it is wise to perform background research as to what the supplier delivers against what they promise.

  • Competition Check

It is also important to determine the competitors operating at the same level as you. Check out their suppliers, and they buy the raw materials at what cost. All the research will help negotiate a better price and not fall for unfair prices.


An in-depth market study is very important for every business, and a manufacturer needs a constant supply of raw materials to keep the manufacturing process constantly flowing. Quality maintenance can be challenging but is of utmost importance for a successful business. Another thing to highlight is the precision required in manufacturing pharmaceutical products. It can be very risky to go wrong in manufacturing such products as these need certain certifications and license clearance. 

So well-performed research is the key to buying the best raw materials for pharmaceutical manufacturing.

We at Bulat Pharma deliver quality products that clear all the required lab tests and standard specifications. For more details on the utilities we provide and our products, visit our website. You can reach out to our executives for any concerns or queries about our services and products.

Everything you need to know about – Trelagliptin Succinate

Trelagliptin succinate is a long-acting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that inhibits DPP-4 activity. Trelagliptin reduces GLP1 breakdown. Thus resulting in a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes patients.

In addition to its hypoglycemic impact, trelagliptin reduces cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. It also increases the activity of islet cells in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A DPP-4 inhibitor combined with insulin decreased insulin resistance in senior T2D patients. 

On March 26th, 2015, Trelagliptin succinate, a once-weekly oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, got licensed in Japan. Trelagliptin outperformed its analogs alogliptin and sitagliptin. 

It was in terms of potency against human DPP-4. And its superior selectivity and slow-binding characteristic may contribute to its long-term effectiveness.

By maintaining certain reaction conditions, you can get a high purity succinate salt of trelagliptin.

Medical Use Of Trelagliptin Succinate

Trelagliptin inhibits the enzyme dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4). It also can alleviate insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. 

Trelagliptin Succinate – Mechanism Of Action

The pathophysiological foundation of metabolic disorders is insulin resistance. It substantially increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, fatty liver, obesity, and hypertension, among other diseases. 

Adipose tissue plays a critical function in energy balance by regulating insulin-stimulated glucose intake. 

GLUT4, an insulin-sensitive glucose transporter, facilitates glucose transfer in adipose tissue by constantly cycling between intracellular storage vesicles and the plasma membrane. 

Any disruption in the translocation of GLUT4 will decrease glucose absorption. And eventually, lead to insulin resistance.

In primary rat adipocytes, trelagliptin succinate increased glucose consumption. Trelagliptin succinate also increased the quantity of GLUT4 protein in the outer membrane. Thus suggesting that trelagliptin succinate stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes, promoting glucose intake.

In rat adipocytes, trelagliptin succinate reduced the production of free fatty acids and resistin. As a result, the mechanism by which trelagliptin succinate improves insulin resistance might link to a decrease in free fatty acid and resistin production.

It regulates blood glucose levels by inhibiting DPP-4. It is an enzyme inactivating the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. 

These are vital in blood glucose regulation. Inhibition of DPP-4 enhances insulin production in response to blood glucose levels. Thus controlling blood sugar levels. 

Synthesis Of Trelagliptin Succinate

The synthesis has gotten much attention because of its unusual therapeutic efficacy and strong market potential. 

The original corporate process began with 4-fluoro-2-methylbenzonitrile. It was brominated to produce 2-bromomethyl-4-fluorobenzonitrile and the dibromide 3′ and was subsequently transformed to compound 3 in the presence of diethyl phosphite. 

The compound got condensed with 3-methyl-6-chlorouracil to get the crucial intermediate 4. It was subsequently nucleophilically substituted with unprotected (R) -3-aminopiperidine. These reaction conditions yielded trelagliptin.

The nucleophilic substitution is crucial in the synthesis to achieve high regioselectivity. Zhang et al. reported replacing the substance with (R)-3-N-protected-aminopiperidine to avoid the creation of the regio-isomer in 2016. However, the subsequent deprotection procedure may yield additional impurities due to cyano-hydrolysis. 

Trelagliptin succinate resulted from dissolving crude and succinic acid in isopropyl alcohol. Then recrystallising it using a 9:1 combination of isopropyl alcohol and water. Thus, giving a high purity succinate salt of Trelagliptin.

Side Effects Of Trelagliptin Succinate

It may lead to hypoglycemia (0.15%). In such cases, provide medicine while carefully monitoring the patient’s condition. Other DPP-4 inhibitors link to significant hypoglycemia and even loss of consciousness when used with Sulfonylurea medicines. 

Furthermore, if low blood sugar happens due to taking this drug, it can get treated with sucrose. Hypoglycemia caused by glucosidase inhibitors, on the other hand, should be treated with fructose.

Drug Approval

Takeda pharmaceutical company submitted a new drug application for trelagliptin to treat T2DM in Japan in March 2014. 

The Japanese Ministry of Health (MHLW) approved the medicine in March 2015. It got approved based on the favourable outcomes of phase III studies in T2DM patients.

Trelagliptin had completed phase II trials outside of Japan. However, Takeda decided to stop developing it in the United States and the European Union in October 2014. It was due to the high expenses of getting permission in these countries. 


People with the following health conditions should be careful while administering the drug. That’s because it may lead to further complications.

  1. Mild renal function problem.
  2. People on sulfonylurea or insulin therapy. There have been instances of significant hypotension when used with other DPP-4 inhibitors.
  3. Hypopituitarism is also known as hypoadrenalism. It is a health condition wherein the pituitary gland is underactive.
  4. Malnutrition, malnutrition, irregular eating patterns, or hypoesthesia are all possible causes of hypoesthesia.
  5. People who exercise vigorously.
  6. Patients who drink too much alcohol.


Trelagliptin is a succinate salt that has given promising results in reducing insulin resistance, thus alleviating type 2 diabetes. Trelagliptin succinate gained approval in March 2015 In Japan. Even with successful results, you still need to be cautious while administering the drug. 

For the best quality active pharmaceutical ingredient company, you can check out our website or call us if you have any queries.

Challenges Faced by Pharmaceutical API Manufacturers


Even though the API manufacturing industry is still vibrant and growing, it faces numerous challenges, such as increased regulation and manufacturing costs. So, what precisely should pharmaceutical companies do to stay ahead of the curve, and where should they source their substances from? 

While there will be obstacles and challenges, there will also be opportunities along the way. In what ways can India become a leading manufacturer of APIs by overcoming challenges while capitalizing on opportunities? Read on to explore what can be done to achieve this goal. 

About: API- Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient

Your first thought is probably companies that produce medicines if you mention the pharmaceutical industry. Thousands of companies produce medicine throughout the world. These manufacturers are known as API manufacturers since they require APIs to manufacture medicines. 

But, what are APIs?

As per the World Health Organization (WHO), an API is defined as any substance used in a pharmacologically active or diagnostically useful pharmaceutical product (FPP) to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease. These APIs include a list of raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry to formulate the medicine. 

Medicine aims to cure, treat, diagnose, or prevent disease. A majority of medications contain a couple of ingredients. The most important one is the API. It is the actual substance in medicine that works in your body.

Large production facilities are mainly responsible for producing APIs. Already, the API market is worth billions of dollars. It involves several steps in a complex chemical process. 

Resources are needed to make it, such as raw materials or intermediates. Historically, pharmaceutical companies made and formulated the API and medicine in their home countries. But eventually started facing some problems of their own. Let’s look into the challenges faced by Pharmaceutical API Manufacturers. 

Formulation of APIs

API formulations affect the efficacy and safety of medications, which means that poorly manufactured or compromised APIs can cause severe issues, which can sometimes even turn out fatal.  

Scaling up produces unexpected outcomes, such as the introduction of new impurities that were not present during smaller-scale production or an increase in the number of impurities. During scale-up, unidentified impurities or an overabundance of impurities can be produced. In that case, the R&D team must closely monitor each step to determine if the impurity can be removed or reduced to the expected level.

Exploring business by using modern technology

India is rich in human capital with skilled & motivated resources. However, there is a lack of capabilities in the innovation field. The government must invest in research initiatives and talent to grow India’s innovation. The government should support clinical trials, and subjectivity in certain regulatory decisions should be removed.

In order for the pharmaceutical industry to achieve its full potential, innovation must flourish, and IP rights must be appropriately recognized, respected, and rewarded. Bringing about a new paradigm will expedite the whole process for the entire nation. 

This suggested new paradigm of IP protection offers the country a significant opportunity to build thousands of high-paying jobs and create new avenues of foreign direct investment through the Biopharmaceutical Industry. An efficient administration of the new patent regime should dispel uncertainty about weak patent enforcement in the country.

Impact of Covid-19 on Business

The recent revelations about vulnerabilities and dependence on China for critical drug inputs have served as a rude but timely reminder for a country hailed as the ‘Pharmacy of the World’. 

In the midst of coping with the ongoing pandemic, the Indian Government has also mounted a vigorous effort to achieve economic self-sufficiency, which involves measures to curtail Chinese API dependence. 

The road ahead may not be easy for manufacturers to decide to produce locally. Sentiments on local production of APIs will probably remain subdued as long as profit margins for APIs are vastly lower than those for finished formulations. Thus, the government will need to make substantial policy interventions to maintain a reasonable profit margin between APIs and finished formulations (FPPs). Interventions from the government are worrying for the industry because they can be restrictive.


There would be no shortage of buyers for COVID-19 treatments, so every country that develops medicines would want to have the ability to introduce solutions to the world market. Not only will they benefit economically from the export of their products, but they will also become a key determinant for the future of global governance in the face of a health crisis.

APIs are an increasingly important sector in India, and a series of initiatives, including establishing/reviving clusters, offering production-linked schemes, as well as other measures, have been implemented to improve the country’s API production and to make it more competitive globally for Pharmaceutical API Manufacturers.

7 Important Tips to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis


An autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), causes inflammation and pain in your joints. Hand, knee, and ankle joints are commonly affected joints, and the disease usually affects both sides of the body, e.g., both hands and knees. RA can, however, also lead to problems in other parts of the body, such as the eyes, heart, circulatory system, and lungs.

Researchers can’t figure out why people develop rheumatoid factors. It is believed that these individuals might have specific genes that are triggered by environmental factors, such as viruses or bacteria, physical or emotional stress, or some other external factor.

It is a chronic condition that cannot be cured. However, recent medical advances have offered patients with RA a much better quality of life.

Patients with RA are typically prescribed combinations of medicines with active pharma ingredients such as Baricitinib or Tofacitinib, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Other treatments, such as surgery, may also be required.

This article aims to introduce you to the various treatment options for RA and explain what each one involves.

Tips to Deal with Rheumatoid Arthritis

You can experience drastic changes in your life if you are diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. You might have difficulty taking on daily tasks and enjoying your favorite hobbies due to the morning stiffness and inflamed joints. To manage your RA, you can follow these effective tips.

Building a relationship with your doctor 

With your doctor’s assistance, you can perform a proactive role in managing your RA. Work with your doctor to understand the details of your treatment plan. Make sure you’re aware of the medications prescribed by your doctor and contain Baricitinib or other salts like tofacitinib. Keep a daily pain journal to understand your RA symptoms day-to-day better, and talk to your doctor about it.

Regular exercise

You can strengthen the muscles around your joints for better support by exercising. Maintaining the flexibility of your joints is crucial to preventing a range of motion loss. Moreover, exercise relieves the pain and inflammation associated with joints. Low-impact exercises like yoga, swimming, or stretching are popular among people with RA. 

Equipped diet

Maintaining a healthy and balanced diet is always a wise decision. Eating healthy reduces inflammation. 

Various fishes, including salmon, trout, tuna, and sardines, contain omega-3 fatty acids, which inhibit chemicals called cytokines that promote inflammation. Research has shown that omega-3 fatty acids ease joint pain and shorten the time you get stiff in the morning.

Moreover, you should eat colorful fruits and vegetables, which contain antioxidants that protect your body against free radical damage. Whole grains, such as oatmeal, brown rice, and barley can protect your body against free radical damage. C-reactive protein, a sign of inflammation, is lower in people who eat whole grains.

What is the best treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?

RA treatment focuses on controlling inflammation, relieving pain, and decreasing the disability associated with the disease. Effective treatment begins at an early stage. Nowadays, joint damage can be slowed or stopped with the help of modern treatments. 

The anti-rheumatoid drugs will slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis

Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKs). DMARDs that inhibit JAK2 are a new type of DMARD that may be helpful for people who cannot take traditional DMARDs or who are not seeing improvements from traditional DMARDs. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) and baricitinib (Olumiant) are among the most commonly used JAK inhibitors.

Anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving medicines for rheumatoid arthritis

People often take pain management medications with RA. According to your condition and the treatment plan you discuss with your doctor, you may need to take these medications temporarily, during a flare-up, or every day. It includes-

Drugs that reduce inflammation (NSAIDs). An NSAID reduces inflammation and relieves pain. If your doctor suggests over-the-counter NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium, or if stronger NSAIDs are prescribed, you may need to take them.

Physical and Occupational Therapy

You can improve your quality of life in many ways with physical therapy and occupational therapy. A plan of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis would not be complete without them.

Exercise plans are available from physical therapists, as is instruction on how to use heat and ice, therapeutic massage, and encouragement.

They help you handle daily activities, such as using the computer and cooking, in a more comfortable manner with pain relief. In addition, they can assess whether any gadgets can facilitate your activities.


RA can’t be cured, but treatment can manage your symptoms, reduce your pain, and slow joint damage. Depending on the severity of your RA and your general health, you will have different treatment options.

Medication with salts Baricitinib or Tofacitinib, physical and occupational therapy, and lifestyle changes might be included in treatment.

What are Pharmaceutical raw materials? 


What are Pharmaceutical raw materials? 

Pharmaceutical raw materials are the bulk drugs, consisting of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and inactive ingredients or excipients. APIs are pharmaceutically active and cause a desired pharmacological outcome, whereas excipients are pharmacologically inactive ingredients that are usually used as a carrier of the API in the medication.

Pharmaceutical Lab Testing of APIs

  • Pharmaceutical lab testing of incoming APIs is important for summit worldwide regulatory guidelines in the pharma and healthcare industries. 
  • Among the most important techniques for API impurity/purity and toxicology screening are-
  • High-resolution mass spectrometry 
  • Gas and liquid chromatography methods.


Drugs show a pharmacological impact after insertion into the body due to the definite mechanism of action of the biologically active ingredients in the product.

Industry analysts forecast the global pharmaceutical excipients market to grow at a CAGR of 6.53% through 2021 to reach $7.7B by 2022. The Global Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients market is expected to reach $198.8 billion by 2022 with a CAGR of 6.4%.